Between Islam and Byzantium by Lynn Jones download in pdf, ePub, iPad
However, Muhammed spend some of his time as a hermit in contemplation at a cave on Mt. Muhammed was a member of a prosperous trading family at the time when trade through Mecca was very profitable. Especially during the Crusades, Christian leaders were able to mobilize large armies in defense of their religion. This constant flow of people meant that fashions and innovations from one culture moved quickly to another.
Consequently, Medina experienced a lot of internal unrest as a result of the ethnic divisions. The Shari'a contained more than just criminal law, and included complex code of ethics.
The setback at Constantinople was followed by further reverses across the vast Muslim empire. While the western half of the Roman Empire disintegrated during the fifth century A. By the universal defection of the Greeks and Africans he was recalled from the shores of the Atlantic. In the Byzantine Empire, the Christian Church became a tool for solving both problems. Arabic translations conserved important works by Aristotle, Plato and other ancient Greek philosophers, as many valuable texts had been destroyed by invading Germanic tribes in the west.
The Church controlled great wealth through the system of tithes, which required each Christian to donate one tenth of his earnings to the Church to pay for good works. Medina was composed of camps populated by people from different ethnic groups who came there to trade. They must also fast during the month of Ramadan. The Ummayyids located their capital in Damascus. He restored stability, consolidated Ummayyid rule, and became the first hereditary caliph.
Muslim forces had quick and extensive military success. Two centuries later, a fragile Byzantine Empire was defeated by the Ottoman Empire.
Both Mecca and Medina were towns on a caravan route that ran parallel to the Red Sea coast. These became known as the five Holy Sees. Finally, every Muslim must visit Mecca at least once on a trip known as the hajj. The Byzantine reforms had political goals as well as spiritual goals.
Thus, the cultural exchange between the two civilizations enriched and sustained them both. However, divisions developed as a result, and the Sunni became the majority group who accepted the control of the Ummayyids. Four years later, a massive Muslim fleet reappeared in the Marmara and re-established a base at Cyzicus, from there they raided the Byzantine coasts almost at will. The basic beliefs of Islam are called the Five pillars of Islam First, there is the Shahada, which requires believers to recognize Allah as the supreme deity. Multiculturalism in the Byzantine Empire As an expanding territory, the Byzantine Empire survived by evolving and incorporating different cultural and social elements.
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